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2003-2004 Fellowship Write-Ups


Palestinian Oral History

PARC Grantees and Officers Showcased at MESA 2003 Panel

MESA PANEL NOVEMBER 2002: Views of the Other in Israeli and Palestinian Textbooks, by Ann M. Lesch

PARC Sponsors First Panel at MESA 2000

I Saw Ramallah: Chapter 1 | Excerpt from Mourid Barghouti's autobiography

Schooling at Gunpoint: Palestinian Children's Learning
Environment in War Like Conditions
| Rita Giacaman, Anita Abdullah,
Rula Abu Safieh and Luna Shamieh, Insitute of Community and Public Health, Birzeit University

Congressional Testimony | Palestinian Private Sector | Hiba Husseini

My Hairdresser is a Sniper | Shira Robinson

Birzeit UniversityóBrief Update
Overcoming Obstacles: Meeting Challenges

There Are Many Reasons Why: Suicide Bombers and Martyrs in Palestine | Lori Allen

Urgent Appeal from Al-Quds University | July 2002

APPEAL July 2002 | In Support of the Right to Education at Birzeit University

Islam with the internet could do much to prevent diseaseóAbdullatif Husseini

Bethlehem University Press ReleaseóUniversity Closed Despite Promises of Freedom of Movement

Bleak Horizons After Operation Defensive Wall
Mouin Rabbani

Mapping the Marsh:
Malaria and the Sharing of Medical Knowledge in Mandatory Palestine

MESA 2001 PARC Panel: "Contemporary Social Science Research on Palestine"

Higher Education in Transition:
Current Realities in Palestinian Universities

Higher Education in Transition: Current Realities in Palestinian Universities
Christa Bruhn, Ph.D.

[Editorís note: The opinions contained in this paper are those of the author and not necessarily those of PARC.]

The responsibility for administering education was handed over to the Palestinians in August 1994, nearly a year after the Oslo Accords. After 26 years of Israeli occupation, gaining control over the educational system has posed tremendous challenges to the Palestinians as they struggle to define for the first time what role education will play in their national development. Until now, institutions of higher education have, for the most part, existed in isolation from one another. Recent changes call for greater cooperation and integration within a system of higher education that honors the autonomy and integrity of individual institutions while at the same time facilitates the needs of economic and social development. As stated in the Special Task Force plan for the Ministry of Higher Education, "the degree of success Palestinians will achieve in building a modern state will depend largely on the quality of the higher education system they build." (1) On my most recent trip to Palestine in August 2000, I researched how the role of higher education has changed through conducting 26 interviews with the presidents and/or vice-presidents of the nine universities, as well as officials in the Ministry of Higher Education and other prominent figures in Palestinian education. I found that the role of higher education in Palestine is indeed being transformed. Born as a vehicle for the development of national identity under Israeli occupation, it now faces the challenge of truly serving the educational needs of its people and defining its role in integrating the Palestinian people and contributing to Palestinian national development. This task is met with tremendous obstacles, including a financial crisis in higher education, ongoing repressive Israeli policies, and the explosion of frustration over the lack of diplomatic progress, all of which interfere with meaningful planning and development in higher education.

Overwhelming consensus among ministry and university officials confirms an emerging role of higher education in nation-building. The focus of this effort is to prepare the Palestinian people to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to be productive members of society as the infrastructure and institutions are developed as part of a larger modernization and state-building effort. The Ministry of Higher Education, established in 1996, focuses on raising the quality of programs by developing its regulation and accreditation capacity. (2) There is a general lack of trust among universities as to the extent to which the ministry wants to regulate institutional developments. Rather than be bound to new regulations coming from above, most universities have chosen to ignore calls for program evaluation and accreditation, resulting in an "unchecked proliferation of programs." (3)

Although the relationship between the ministry and the universities appears to be inherently adversarial, (4) the ministry hopes to serve as a facilitator of individual institutional efforts in self-improvement. (5) Elements within both segments have expressed a need for specialization. For example, Al-Najah University President Rami Hamdallah notes that "there is no strategic planning for higher education. We must merge specializations, colleges, and universities" so that we can better serve society and Palestinian development as a whole. (6) Without an integrated plan, it will be difficult for institutions to serve the needs of society at large. The absence of a plan will actually contribute to the developmental stagnation of Palestinian society as a whole. (7)

"Everybodyís working in isolation, but we all have the same problems," said Daoud Al-Zatari of Hebron Polytechnic. (8) Recognition of what universities share and the role the Ministry of Higher Education could play in coordinating the planning and communication among institutions is the first step toward tapping into the creativity and expertise within the larger system to better serve the social and economic needs of an emerging Palestinian state.

Leaders in higher education can take specific action to strengthen their role in national development in spite of the tremendous obstacles they face due to the confrontation with Israel. Initially, they can develop a common vision by recognizing a shared sense of purpose directed at Palestinian national development. Knowing they are on the same path would foster trust among universities at an institutional and systemic level. In the resulting spirit of collaboration, the unique strengths and contributions of each institution would come to the forefront so that universities, with the support and guidance of the Ministry of Higher Education, could develop partnerships among faculty, programs, institutions, and communities by sharing expertise and resources for mutually beneficial endeavors.

Based on my interviews, I believe that the Ministry of Higher Education neither wants to nor can police the activities of individual institutions. It can, however, provide guidance and support to the universitiesí own planning and development efforts and can seek to enhance higher educationís contribution to national development in an atmosphere of collaboration rather than competition. Both the vision and the responsibility must be shared. Committing adequate financial and human resources to the Ministry of Education to facilitate alignment of these activities within the system is crucial to its stability. With higher educationís vital role in economic development, universities must take their shared role seriously in enabling future generations of Palestinians not only to work within a viable economy but also provide leadership to a people that has struggled for both identity and survival.


1 Ministry of Education, "Proposed Direction for Palestinian Higher Education: A Vision for the Future, Report of the Special Task Force on the Proposed Direction of Palestinian Higher Education," Ramallah, September 1999, p. 26.
2 Interview with Rubhi Abu-Sneineh, Ministry of Higher Education, Ramallah, 7 August 2000.
3 Interview with Jacqueline Sfeir, Bethlehem University, Bethlehem, 10 August 2000.
4 Interview with Ramzi Rihan, Birzeit University, Birzeit, 14 August 2000.
5 Abu-Sneineh 7 August 2000 and Interview with Gabi Baramki, Ministry of Higher Education, Ramallah, 17 August 2000.
6 Rafi Daraghmah, "Hamdallah tells Al-Ayyam: Al-Najah is turning into a first base for science and technology in Palestine," Al-Ayyam. Jerusalem, 8 August 2000, p. 10.
7 Abdul Jawad Saleh, "Indigenous Problems of Institutions of Higher Education in the Occupied West Bank and the Gaza Strip" (Jerusalem: Al-Quds Center for Research, 1982).
8 Daoud Al-Zatari, Hebron Polytechnic, Hebron, 16 August 2000.

Christa Bruhn is a doctoral student in educational administration at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. This article is based on a paper she presented at the Middle Eastern Studies Association (MESA) Conference in Orlando in November 2000.

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PARC Sponsors First Panel at MESA 2000

PARC sponsored its first panel at the November 2000 meeting of the Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA) meeting. The title of the discussion "Rule by Records: The Impact and Legacy of British Rule in Palestine," featured Dr. Ellen Fleischmann (University of Dayton), Dr. Martin Bunton (University of Victoria and recipient of one of PARCís 2000-2001 research fellowships), Dr. Michael Fischbach (Randolph-Macon College and former director of PARC), and Dr. Salim Tamari (Institute of Jerusalem Studies). Dr. Sandy Sufian (Center for Health Research/Oregon Health Sciences University) was unable to attend but provided a paper on malaria and the sharing of medical knowledge in mandatory Palestine. Dr. Lisa Pollard (University of North Carolina-Wilmington) chaired the panel and Dr. Roger Owen (Harvard University) served as discussant.

While much of the research writings on the British Mandate period (1922 to 1948) tended to focus on diplomacy and the political struggle over Palestine, PARCís panel members explored neglected disciplines. For example, Fleischmann discussed a survey commissioned by the British Director of Health in Palestine that explored the sexual practices and attitudes of Palestinians, including the prevalence of promiscuous sexual intercourse, polygamy, and "unnatural vices," and which tells us more about British officials than the Palestinians. Sufianís paper also dealt with public health, mainly the exchange of scientific information on malaria and swampland between Zionist malariologists and British health officials that the Zionists used to promote national settlement and to prove their efforts in developing the country.

Both Bunton and Fischbach presented information on British land records. Bunton was looking at how, in creating English language land registries, the British were interpreting a land tenure situation that they inherited. "A historian canít just look at a land registry and find objective data about who owned what, because you have to understand all these records were being created by the British who were in a position of power and were writing things down in a foreign language to these Palestinians," said Fischbach. "In turn, these documents would have a profound effect on their economic lives." Fischbach asserted that the English-language land records continued to exert an impact on Palestinians, even after British rule ended in 1948. "The largest study ever done of Palestinian refugee property was done by the U.N. and was based on British land and taxation documents. These continue to affect their economic and social lives decades after the British left Palestine."

Salim Tamari extended the discussion beyond the British rule in Palestine by discussing the UNRWA (United National Relief and Works Agency) archives. These records include information collected routinely about some 3.3 million Palestinian refugees registered with the agency. When this voluminous data is transferred to CD-ROM, it will be an invaluable databank to researchers working on social and economic aspects of the Palestinian refugee communities throughout the Middle East, about whom little is known.

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Palestinian American Research Center Panel: "Contemporary Social Science Research on Palestine"
Middle East Studies Association 35th Annual Conference
San Francisco, USA, 18 November 2001
Evaluating Recent Political Science Scholarship on Palestine

óGlenn E. Robinson

Writing the History of Palestine

óJudith Tucker

Notes on Contemporary Scholarship in the Social Sciences on Palestinian Women

óJulie Peteet

Social Science Research in Palestine

óMouin Rabbani

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